The Big CUP

Want to know the processes that shape the planetary surfaces ?

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There are four major geological processes that can explain the geological surface features but I will only focus on one of them which is IMPACT CRATERING.

Impact creating is the creation of bowl-shaped impact craters mainly caused by leftover planetesimals from the solar system’s formation (asteroids or comets) striking a planet surface.

 impact GIF
The phenomena of the impact cratering

Comets or asteroids typically hit the surface at a hyper-velocity (speed between 10 70 km/s) which releases enough energy to vaporize solid rock and blast out a crater. Crater comes from the Greek word for cup. Next, debris from the blast shoots high above the surface and then rains down over large area.Generally, craters are circular in shape because an impact blasts out material in all directions regardless of the direction of the impactor except for  very low-angle impacts because it will create a significantly elliptical -shaped craters.

Dc = 1.8 ρa 0.11 ρs -1/3 gp -0.22 (2R) 0.13 KE0.22 (sin θ) 1/3

Based on this equation, craters are typically about 10 times as wide as the objects that create them.Dc in this equation stands for the diameter of crater. Generally, a large crater may have a central peak and this peak forms when the center rebounds after impact in much the same way as the GIF below.

 impact GIF
Impact By GIPHY

On the other hand ,Daniel Barringer  was among the first to identify an impact crater which is the Meteor Crater in Arizona. For the crater specialists, this site is called the Barringer Crater in his honor. Below is the list of amazing craters on Earth.

List of craters on Earth